Project Glossary



Atomic swapAtomic swaps (or atomic cross-chain trading) are automatic exchange contracts that allow two parties to trade tokens from two different blockchains, mechanism that completely eliminates the need for centralized third-party entities when executing trades
BlockchainBlockchains are replicated databases that act as the ultimate books and records (i.e., the ‘golden source’) that represents the universal understanding of the current status of all units of the digital asset
C.T.U.Usually refers to specialized Law Enforcements Agencies (LEAs) designated in national level, responsible for conducting counter-terrorism investigations, gathering and analyzing information relating to terrorism/extremism and carrying out counter terrorism operations based on intelligence products, aiming at preventing and dismantling terrorist activity. In counter terrorism investigations may be applied special investigative techniques in accordance with respective national procedural criminal laws, in order to be collected trial admissible evidence. Finally, such investigations may include but not limited to financial components so as to investigate cases relating to terrorism financing. For this reason, C.T.U. is in close cooperation with FIUs and other relevant stakeholders.   
Chain-hoppingChain-hopping is the process of converting cryptocurrency into another cryptocurrency or vice versa via crypto-to-crypto virtual currency exchanges
CrowdfundingCrowdfunding is the practice of soliciting contributions from a large number of people, especially from the online community, usually in smaller amounts, to support an idea or a project
Cryptocurrency A cryptocurrency is a digital or virtual currency that is secured by cryptography, which makes it nearly impossible to counterfeit or double-spend. Many cryptocurrencies are decentralized networks based on blockchain technology—a distributed ledger enforced by a disparate network of computers. A defining feature of cryptocurrencies is that they are generally not issued by any central authority, rendering them theoretically immune to government interference or manipulation.
Dark web/DarknetThe dark web refers to content that isn’t indexed by search engines and that requires special software or authorization to access. Dark web content lives on the darknet, a part of the internet accessible only to particular browsers or through specific network configurations
Decentralised Finance (DeFi)Financial tools and services that do not rely on centralised parties to coordinate and control access
Deep webThe deep web (also called the invisible or hidden web) is the part of the Internet that is not indexed by search engines and does not appear in search results.
FiatFiat currency refers to traditional, state-backed currencies like Sterling, euro and US Dollar
FinTechFinTech is any financial technology that is used to invent new financial instruments and/or to improve and automate the delivery and use of financial services.
FIUsFIUs serve as national independent and autonomous operational centers responsible to collect and analyze information which they receive with the aim of establishing links between suspicious transactions and underlying criminal activity in order to prevent and combat money laundering and terrorist financing. FIUs have the authority and capacity to carry out their functions freely, including the autonomous decision to analyze, request and disseminate specific information to competent authorities. Suspicious transactions reports (STRs) and other information relevant to money laundering, associated predicate offences and terrorist financing should be reported by the obliged entities to the FIUs. Moreover, FIUs may obtain additional information from reporting entities and have timely access to required financial, administrative, and law enforcement information to undertake their functions properly. Finally, depending on national law of each State, FIUs may have the capacity of freezing and confiscating assets pursuant to restrictive measures (smart sanctions) stipulated in UNSCRs and EU’s consolidated sanction lists against individuals or entities affiliated with terrorism or specific terrorist groups.   
KYCKnow Your Customer is the process of verifying the identity and background of your customer/client (a process sometimes called “due diligence”). This verification typically takes place before the commencement of a business relationship, and may continue periodically or on an ongoing basis throughout the course of the relationship
MiningMining is the process by which networks of specialized computers generate and release new Bitcoin and verify new transactions
Money LaunderingMoney laundering is the process by which proceeds from a criminal activity are disguised to conceal their illicit origin. According to the Vienna Convention and the Palermo Convention provisions on money laundering, it may encompass three distinct, alternative actus reas: (i) the conversion or transfer, knowing that such property is the proceeds of crime (ii) the concealment or disguise of the true nature, source, location, disposition, movement or ownership of or rights with respect to property, knowing that such property is the proceeds of crime; and (iii) the acquisition, posession or use of property, knowing, at the time of the receipt, that such property is the proceeds of crime
Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs)A Non-fungible token (NFT) is a unique asset or units of data stored using distributed ledger technology. “Non-fungible” means that it is unique and cannot be replaced with something else
Smart ContractA type of contract where the terms are mapped directly in code which automatically executes the predefined terms as soon as the contractual conditions have been fulfilled
Surface WebThe Surface Web (also called the Visible Web, Indexed Web, Indexable Web or Lightnet) is the portion of the World Wide Web that is readily available to the general public and searchable with standard web search engines. It is the opposite of the deep web, the part of the web not indexed by a web search engine
Terrorist financingAny act of providing or collecting funds, by any means, directly or indirectly, with the intention that they be used, or in the knowledge that they are to be used, in full or in part, to commit, or to contribute to the commission of, any of the terrorist offences referred to in Articles 3 to 10 of the Directive (EU) 2017/541 is punishable as a criminal offence when committed intentionally. 
Terrorist financingTerrorist financing is the financing of terrorist acts, and of terrorists and terrorist organisations. 
TokenA token represents a tradable asset or utility that resides on its ownblockchain and allows the holder to use it for investment or economic purposes
Tor (The Onion Router)Tor is an open-source privacy network that enables anonymous web browsing. The worldwide Tor computer network uses secure, encrypted protocols to ensure that users’ online privacy is protected
Virtual CurrencyVirtual currency is a digital representation of value that functions as a medium of exchange, a unit of account, and/or a store of value
WalletA mechanism allowing individuals to hold virtual assets securely. They can either be “hot” (online) or “cold” (offline/hardware based)
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